Two FIFA World Cup finals in each of the men's and women's competitions have been decided by the penalty kick shootout. The first two of these took place in the same stadium, the Rose Bowl in California.
Seven of the previous 17 CONMEBOL Copa Libertadores finals have been decided by the penalty kick shootout.
Israeli Yosef Dagan and former German referee Karl Wald, both claim to be the inventor of the penalty kick shootout.
Goalkeepers have been known to score the winning goal of a shootout. In a Euro 2004 quarter final, Portuguese goalkeeper Ricardo Pereira saved a kick and then scored the winning goal. Another example is José Luis Chilavert in the Copa Libertadores finals of 1994.
The first penalty shootout in the UEFA European Cup final occurred in 1984 when Liverpool defeated A.S. Roma. The match is best known for the antics of Liverpool goalkeeper Bruce Grobbelaar and his wobbling legs.
A penalty shootout was first used in an FA Cup final in 2005, when Arsenal beat Manchester United. The following year, Liverpool beat West Ham in the FA Cup final's second ever penalty shootout.
The FIFA World Rankings calculate the base value of a win as three points, a win on penalties as two, a draw and a loss on penalties as one and a loss as zero.
Prior to the penalty kick shootout and when a replay was not possible, drawn matches were decided by drawing lots. Examples include Italy’s win over the USSR in the semi final of the 1968 European Championship.
The North American Soccer League in the 1970’s and then Major League Soccer (MLS) in the 1990’s experimented with a variation on the penalty kick shootout. The shootout started thirty-five yards from the goal and the player had five seconds to attempt a shot. MLS abandoned the format after the 1999 season and now use the standard penalty shootout.
Peñarol won the 1996 Copa Uruguay with an American style shootout where the players started from the centre circle and had eight seconds to try and score a goal.19
In 2005 a place at the FIFA World Cup was determined by the penalty kick shootout for the first time. The qualifier between Australia and Uruguay ended one all on aggregate. John Aloisi converted the winning penalty, which saw Australia qualify for their first World Cup since Germany 1974.
The first international competition decided by the penalty kick shootout was the Euro 76 final between Czechoslovakia and West Germany. The winning penalty was converted by Panenka and his eponymous chip kick was born.
The 2008 UEFA Champions League Final between Manchester United and Chelsea was decided by the shootout. John Terry missed a penalty (his standing leg slipped as he took his kick and the ball struck the post), which would have won Chelsea the match and their first UEFA Champions League trophy.
England has lost seven of eight penalty shootouts in major competitions. Since UEFA Euro 96 England lost five shootouts in a row. They lost to Germany at Euro 96, Argentina at the 1998 World Cup, Portugal at Euro 2004 and the 2006 World Cup and lastly to Italy at Euro 2012. The only victory was against Spain in the Euro 96 quarter final.
The Netherlands lost four consecutive shootouts against Denmark in Euro 92, France in Euro 96, Brazil in the 1998 World Cup, and Italy in Euro 2000, before finally winning one against Sweden in Euro 2004.
The Italians have lost six shootouts in major competitions and were eliminated from three consecutive World Cup finals (1990–1998). However, they have also won three shootouts, including the Euro 2000 semi final, the Euro 2012 quarter final against England and 2006 World Cup final.
On 20 June 2007, a new UEFA record was established. The semi-final of the European under-21 Championships in Heerenveen between the Netherlands and England team finished in 1–1. Thirty-two penalties had to be taken before the tie was decided. The Netherlands eventually won 13–12.
Roberto Baggio was enjoying an impressive tournament at the 1994 World Cup, scoring five goals in the three knockout games, including a late brace to rescue Italy from defeat against Nigeria. The final between Italy and Brazil was scoreless after an uninspiring two hours. The penalty kick shootout began with Italian defender Franco Baresi putting his kick over the crossbar. Italian keeper Gianluca Pagliuca then saved from Márcio Santos to keep Italy level. The next four penalties produced goals. Brazilian keeper Cláudio Taffarel then saved Daniele Massaro's shot. Brazilian captain Dunga scored, which left it to Baggio to keep Italian hopes alive. In a moment that's been etched in the minds of fans all around the world, Baggio sent the ball flying over the crossbar and his torment began.
"We don't consider we lost on football but to a circus turn."