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  4. Penalties will put World Cup players on the spot, Steve Slater,, 27 May 2010
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  6. Minutes of the Meeting of the Working Party set up by the International Football Association Board, The Scottish Football Association Ltd., 20 February 1970
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  9. Shootout banned; TV lineup changed, teleconference by Don Garber, CNN, 18 November 1999
  10. Rock 'n' Roll Soccer: The Short Life and Fast Times of the North American Soccer League, Ian Plenderleith, Icon Books, 2014
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  13. Thermoregulatory observations in soccer match play: professional and recreational level applications using an intestinal pill system to measure core temperature, A M Edwards, N A Clark, British Journal of Sports Medicine 2006;40:133–138
  14. The Question: is the away-goals rule counterproductive?, Jonathan Wilson,, 13 March 2013
  15. Should the Away Goals Rule be Scrapped?, Johnathan Fadugba, Four Four Two Magazine, UK, 22 April 2015
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  19. Ward's Soccerpedia, Andrew Ward, Anova Books, 2006
  20. The art of taking a penalty, Chris Wyatt,, BBC Sport, 5 June 2008
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  22. Peter Shilton: I wanted to be a goalkeeper from the moment someone put two coats down in the playground, author not cited,, 8 June 2006
  23. There Must Be A Better Way Than Penalty-kick System, author not cited, The Philadelphia Inquirer, 24 June 1986
  24. Argentina's Maradona too much for England, Barry Wilner, The Deseret News, 23 June 1986
  25. The joy of six: inspired tactical switches, author not cited,, 10 July 2007
  26. Mental approach holds key to penalty success, Mitch Phillips, Reuters, 25 June 2008
  27. Scolari pays tribute to resilient England, author not cited, ESPN FC, 1 July 2006
  28. For Soccer to Win American Hearts, It Must Create Some Heroes, Ian Thomsen, NY Times, 20 July 1994
  29. Father of shoot-outs puts Swiss, English on spot, Mike Atkins, The Times of Malta, 6 July 2006
  30. Psychological Pressure in Competitive Environments: Evidence from a Randomized Natural Experiment, Jose Apesteguia and Ignacio Palacios-Huerta, American Economic Review 100: 2548–2564, December 2010
  31. The Joy of Six: Short-lived football rule changes, Paul Doyle and Nick Miller,, 25 September 2015
Baggio misses the decisive penalty kick at the 1994 FIFA World Cup.

"It affected me for years. It is the worst moment of my career.
I still dream about it. If I could erase a moment, it would be that one."

Roberto Baggio
Former Italian Player